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The policy covers direct physical loss to any property described in coverages A and B (basically, the dwelling and other covered structures). A “direct loss” is “a loss that results immediately and proximity from an event”. There must be a causal connection between the peril and the consequences of the loss. For example, assume John Smith’s home is damaged in a fire, which affects the structural integrity of the dwelling. A few months later, a major windstorm hits the house and knocks over a retaining wall, which was slightly weakened by the previous fire. It would be difficult to successfully argue that the fire was the direct or proximate cause of the fallen wall. The intervening agent (windstorm) would probably be considered the direct cause.

There are 8 exclusions or sets of exclusions pertaining solely to the dwelling and other structures, including the following.
• Property Section Exclusions
• Collapse Exclusion
• Freezing of Plumbing, Heating, Air Conditioning, or Sprinkler Systems, and Household Appliances Exclusion
• Freezing, Thawing, Pressure, or Weight of Water or Ice Exclusion
• Theft Involving Dwelling under Construction Exclusion
• Vandalism and Malicious Mischief for Vacant Dwellings Exclusion
• Mold, Fungus or Wet Rot Exclusion
• Wear and Tear Exclusions

The HO 3 form covers direct physical loss to personal property caused by one of 16 named perils unless the loss is excluded under the general property exclusions. These named perils, which are discussed in the following pages, are as follows.
• Fire or lightning
• Windstorm or hail
• Explosion
• Riot or civil commotion
• Aircraft
• Vehicles
• Smoke
• Vandalism or malicious mischief
• Theft
• Falling objects
• Weight of ice, snow, or sleet
• Accidental discharge or overflow of water or steam
• Sudden and accidental tearing apart, cracking, burning, or bulging
• Freezing
• Sudden and accidental damage from artificially generated electrical current
• Volcanic eruption

The form states that the loss must be “direct.” A “direct loss” is “a loss that results immediately and proximity from an event” (Black’s Law Dictionary, 7th ed.). There must be a causal connection between the peril and the consequences of the loss. For example, assume the named insured’s home is damaged in a fire, which affects the structural integrity of the dwelling. A few months later, a major windstorm hits the house and knocks over a retaining wall, which was slightly weakened by the previous fire and never subsequently repaired. It would be difficult to successfully argue that the fire was the direct or proximate cause of the fallen wall. The intervening agent (windstorm) would probably be considered the direct cause.